Oren A. and Rodriguez-Valera F. “The contribution of halophilic Bacteria to the red coloration of saltern crystallizer ponds.” FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 2001. In addition, Smith et al. 8. Lives in environments with a … 9.  D. salina may also be a source of vitamin B12. The GC content of "D. salina" is relatively low compared to other Chlamydomonadales at 34.4% for mitochondrial DNA and 32.1% for plastid DNA. 22 Nov 2012. Martinez et al. What is Dunaliella Salina? Skin Nourishment and moisturizing Dunaliella Salina contains effective mineral high concentration of … , Due to the abundance of β-carotene, which is an anti-oxidant as well as a vitamin A precursor, D. salina is a popular pro-vitamin A food supplement and cosmetic additive. 603–610. It acts as a powerful antioxidant for skin. Dunaliella salina is nature's richest source of natural beta-carotene, each gram contains around10-20mg of beta-carotene, plus other carotenoids and nutrients.Research shows that natural dietary beta … Smith D., Lee R., Cushman J., Magnuson J., Tran D. and Polle J.” The Dunaliella salina organelle genomes: large sequences, inflated with intronic and intergenic DNA.” BMA Plant Biology, 2010. 22 Nov. 2012. Glycerol is a compatible solute in which not only contributes to osmotic balance of the cell but also maintains enzyme activity (Brown as stated in Oren). Michel Felix Dunal first discovered "D. salina" in 1838 in the south of France occupying; however, it was not named until 1905 by Teodoresco . Oren A. Dunaliella sp. Dunaliella salina is a type of halophile green micro-algae (phytoplankton) especially found in sea salt fields. doi: 10.1002/bit.260230608. Dunaliella is a single-celled, photosynthetic green alga, that is characteristic for its ability to outcompete other organisms and thrive in hypersaline environments.  D. salina preserves a high concentration of glycerol by maintaining a cell membrane with low permeability to glycerol and synthesizing large quantities of glycerol from starch as a response to high extracellular salt concentration, which is why it tends to thrive in highly salinic environments. The organism was fully described as a new, separate genus simultaneously by Teodoresco and Clara Hamburger of Heidelberg, Germany in 1905. It can be used to boost your protection against UV damage and increase … Known for its anti-oxidant activity because of its ability to create large amount of carotenoids, it is used in cosmetics … Dunaliella salina is a model organism to study the effects of saline adaptation in algae. Teodoresco was the first to publish his work, so he is generally given credit for this categorization. Farhat et al. “Optimization of salt concentrations for a higher carotenoid production in Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyceae).” Phycological Society To survive, these organisms have high concentrations of β-carotene to protect against the intense light, and high concentrations of glycerol to provide protection against osmotic pressure. “Effects of Salts on Halophilic Alga Dunaliella viridis.” Journal of Bacteriology, 1968. Dunaliella Salina. DOI: 10.5897/AJB10.2392. 6.3.2 Spacing between electrodes. When applied on skin it can reverse any ongoing oxidative damage to the … What makes it so special is that it actually thrives in harsh … DOI: 10.1016/0960-8524(91)90162-D, 5. It is mostly a marine organism, though there … Kumudha A, Sarada R. Characterization of vitamin B12 in. Dunaliella salina was named by Emanoil C. Teodoresco of Bucharest, Romania after its original discoverer, Michel Felix Dunal, who first scientifically reported sighting the organism in saltern evaporation ponds in Montpellier, France in 1838. This natural beta-carotene offers a number of unique … (2007). Dunaliella salina is a unicellular green alga of the genus and was studied since the early 19th century, and numerous species were characterized and classified since then. 11. “Effect of salinity on sexual activity of Dunaliella salina (Dunal) Teodoresco, strain CONC-006.” Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 1995. Dunaliella salina is famous for much more than causing the waters of Las Coloradas's salt-ponds to turn pink: The alga is grown commercially as a source of beta-carotene. The genus was first described by Teodoresco (Teodoresco, 1905) with the type of species being Dunaliella salina, and … , D. salina lacks a rigid cell wall, which makes the organism susceptible to osmotic pressure. (2011). Dunaliella salina is a type of halophile green micro-algae especially found in sea salt fields. The ability to tolerate high salt concentrations is advantageous, since competition is minimal as salt high salt concentrations. Dunaliella Salina Powder is obtained by Dunaliella salina through multiple processings. Dunaliella Salinais a green micro-algae typically found in sea salt fields around the world. In: Algae of Ukraine: diversity, nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology and geography. The sequencing of Dunaliella species is important to isolate different species for commercial purposes. Can J Bot. 1981;23:1267–1287. Rejuvenal healthy aging, n.d. Today, the algae is being studied for various health benefits. Algae Biomass. Web. In addition, the role of glycerol in D. salina as a key organic compatible solute has been used as a research model . Dunaliella salina lacks a rigid wall, and the plasma membrane alone makes the cell susceptible to osmotic pressure . Although the biochemistry and physiology of D. salina has been researched, much about the genome was unknown until Smith et al. Betatene ® is a naturally sourced beta-carotene derived from algae (Dunaliella salina) and part of the broad beta-carotene product range BASF offers. High extracellular salt concentration drives the synthesis of glucose. Dunaliella is known for its antioxidant activity … β-carotene is a type of pro-vitamin A, responsible for inhibiting the production of free radicals from ultraviolet light . Low salt concentrations of 2% and 5% induced sexual activity, whereas higher salt concentration of 30% decreases sexual reproduction. The D. salina organelle genome sequence are circular and large with approximately 60% non-coding DNA . 14. 2. Attempts have been made to exploit the high concentrations of glycerol accumulated by D. salina as the basis for the commercial production of this compound. Known for its antioxidant activity because of its ability to create large amount of carotenoids, it is used in cosmetics … 7. Chen H., Lu Y. and Jiang J. This offers an opportunity for commercial biological production of these substance. It provides a range of trace minerals and nutrients. DOI: 10.1016/S0176-1617(88)80132-9. Dunaliella salina is a genus of one-celled green microalgae first discovered in 1838 in southern France.  found that both genomes are highly occupied with introns: mitochondrial DNA (58%) and plastid DNA (65.5%). Journal of Applied Phycology 19: 567-590. 152–157. determined that sexual activity of D. salina significantly decreases in higher salt concentrations (>10%) and is induced in lower salt concentrations. The chloroplast can hold large amounts of β-carotene, which makes it appear orange-red. 1. It possesses Antioxidant, Antiinflammatory, Photoprotection, Antiproliferative … Dunaliella Salina is a micro algae species. Dunaliella salina is rich in beta carotenoid, which is a provitamin A, a precursor to vitamin A.  Different technologies are used, from low-tech extensive cultivation in lagoons to intensive cultivation at high cell densities under carefully controlled conditions. This page was last edited on 7 June 2020, at 19:54.  Sexual reproduction begins when two D. salina’s flagella touch leading to gamete fusion. 10.1371/journal.pone.0037578, 16. Dunaliella salina are found in high salinity environments such as salted brines, salt evaporation ponds, and hypersaline lakes . , 6. In: Shelef G, Soeder CJ, editor. However, despite the positive contributions of D. salina, commercial production is limited due to the low productivity of β-carotene . So pink, in fact, that it makes this salt lake in western Australia look like it’s made of … Journal of Alloys and Craigie JS, McLachlan J. Glycerol as a photosynthetic product in Dunaliella tertiolecta Butcher. Web. Osmotic stress affects enzyme activity of key enzymes of the glycerol metabolic pathway: glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatase, dihydroxyacetone reductase, and dihydroxyacetone kinase. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from the green alga Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyta). Dunaliella salina was thought to be responsible for the red colouring of salted brines . Gimmler H. and Hartung W. “Low Permeability of the Plasma Membrane of Dunaliella parva for Solutes.” Journal of Plant Physiology, 1988. The mitochondrial and plastid genome contains 28.3 (12 genes) and 269 kb (102 genes) respectively . Just like other forms of algae, it is an aquatic organism that grows in salt water. In general, Dunaliella salina … The safety evaluation of Dunaliella bardawil as a potential food supplement. n.d. , D. salina can reproduce asexually through division of motile vegetative cells and sexually through the fusion of two equal gametes into a singular zygote. Eukaryota (Domain); Viridiplantae (Kingdom); Chlorophyta (Phylum); Chlorophyceae (Class); Volvocales (Order); Dunaliellaceae (Family); Dunaliella (Genus). 1983;37:95–119. Dunaliella species are able to tolerate varying NaCl concentrations, ranging from 0.2% to approximately 35% .  determined the sexual activity of "D. salina" from evaluating ratio of zygotes and zygospores to total cells observed in culture. Thus, Dunaliella salina is a hyper-halotolerant organism found in high densities in saline lakes. Wengmann K. “Osmotic Regulation of photosynthetic Glycerol Production in Dunaliella.” Biochimica et biophysica acta, 1971. The D. salina zygote is extraordinarily hardy and can survive exposure to fresh water and to dryness. of America, 2011. are motile, unicellular, rod to ovoid shaped green algae, which are common in marine (salient) waters. The β-carotene appears to protect the organism from long-term UV radiation that D. salina is exposed to in its typical environments. Cancer . “Comparative Analysis on the Key Enzymes of the Glycerol Cycle Metabolic Pathway in Dunaliella salina under Osmotic Stresses.” PLoS ONE, 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037578. Dunaliella salina extract is also a natural source of vitamin B12. “Comparative Analysis on the Key Enzymes of the Glycerol Cycle Metabolic Pathway in Dunaliella salina under Osmotic Stresses.” PLoS ONE, 2012, DOI: Few organisms can survive like D. salina does in such highly saline conditions as salt evaporation ponds. Tawan Chatsungnoen, Yusuf Chisti, in Biofuels from Algae (Second Edition), 2019. Borowitzka, M.J. & Siva, C.J.  studied the effects of salinity to maximize β-carotene production and found carotenoid concentration increases with increasing salinity. This combination offers potential in biotechnological applications for the purpose of commercial products such as lipstick due to β-carotene production . Dunaliella Salina is a genus of the algae family Dunaliellaceae. Chen BJ, Chi CH. 17. Chen H., Lu Y. and Jiang J. Food Chem Toxicol. Dunaliella salina is a model organism to study the effects of saline adaptation in algae . 15. Smith D., Lee R., Cushman J., Magnuson J., Tran D. and Polle J.” The Dunaliella salina organelle genomes: large sequences, inflated with intronic and intergenic DNA.” BMA Plant Biology, 2010. After germination, the zygotes release up to 32 haploid daughter cells. Sexual reproduction, the formation of two gametes into a zygospore, is affected by salt concentrations. D. salina is also adapted to solar radiation using β-carotene to protect against ionizing energy. Dunaliella salina is a unicellular green alga found in environments with high salt concentration . D. salina comes in various shapes and symmetries depending on the conditions in its current environment. Although there is a much greater abundance of D. salina, the red pigments on the cell membrane of archaea are more visibly accessible. doi: 10.1007/BF00027649. Ben-Amotz A, Avron M. The biotechnology of mass culturing. Dunaliella Salinais a green algae best known for turning lakes red around the world. Olmos et al. However, carotenoids responsible for the red colouration in D. salina are found in algal chloroplasts, whereas halophilic archaea also occupying hypersaline lakes have red pigments dispersed throughout the cell membrane . & Nevo, E. Eds), pp. From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource, http://blog.recoverye21.com/dunaliella-salina/, https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php?title=Dunaliella_salina&oldid=142865. 3. Dunaliellales. Though D. salina can survive in salinic environments, Martinez et al. D. salina has adapted to survive in high salinity environments by accumulating glycerol to balance osmotic pressure. DUNALIELLA SALINA EXTRACT and EXTRACT OF DUNALIELLA SALINA. Hydrobiologia. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-10-83. 1984;116/117:115–121. Johnson et al. Olmos J., Paniagua J. and Contreras R. “Molecular identification of Dunaliella sp. , Species in the genus Dunaliella are morphogically similar to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with the main exception being that Dunaliella lack both a cell wall and a contractile vacuole. Arch f Protistenkd. (2011). 22 Nov 2012. Dunaliella salina and Dunaliella bardawil are the most important species for β-carotene production; however, other pigments and compounds like lutein, chlorophyll, glycerol, and polyunsaturated fatty acids are also produced by these and other Dunaliella … β-carotene also contributes to the anti-oxidant effects of D. salina and is used as an additive in human and animal nutrition for sources of vitamin A . Mixed Carotenoids. Biotechnol Bioengin. 1964;42:777–778. In simple terms, it means, these … Dunaliella salina is a type of halophile pink micro-algae especially found in sea salt fields. Johnson M., Johnson E., MacElroy R., Speer H. and Bruff B. & Lilitska, G.G. (Tsarenko, P.M., Wasser, S.P. Known for its antioxidant activity because of its ability to create large amount of carotenoids, it is used in cosmetics and dietary supplements. It produces a distinct pink and red colour often characteristic of saltern ponds . Among various carotenoid-rich microalgae, D. salina has the greatest carotene concentration making up ~10% algal dry weight. Dunaliella Salina Powder is known as the "power source of cells" and "protective agent of life" by the world scientific community due to its rich and unique life nutrient elements. But don’t let its pedigree fool you--this little alga is bright pink! Cancer: Ingredients linked to cancer in government, … DOI: 10.5772/19046. “Microalgal Biotechnology and Bioenergy in Dunaliella” Biomedical Engineering, 2011. Lerche W. Untersuchungen über Entwicklung und Fortpflanzung in der Gattung Dunaliella. What is Dunaliella salina? Martinez G., Cifuentes A., Gonzalez M. and Parra O. The mass culture of Dunaliella for fine chemicals: from laboratory to pilot plant. Annu Rev Microbiol. Studies have found that Dunaliella salina … Dunaliella salina is a safe and potent source of natural beta-carotene and suitable for all types of skin disorders and inflammation. He initially named the organism Haematococcus salinus and Protococcus. 1989;27:221–6. Ruggell: A.R.A. In addition, the role of glycerol in D. salina as a key organic compatible solute has been used as a … “A century years of Dunaliella research: 1905-2005.” Saline Systems, 2005. Distance between the electrodes in an electrolytic unit is an important design variable that affects the cost of operation .In harvesting of Dunaliella salina … Ben-Amotz A. Glycerol, β-carotene and dry algal meal production by commercial cultivation of Dunaliella. Dunaliella Salina Extract is an extract of the alga, Dunaliella salina. These enzymes regulate glycerol requirements of the cell by responding to osmotic stresses. Dunaliella salina,the English name Dunaliella salina,was from 3.8 billion years ago. doi: 10.1146/annurev.mi.37.100183.000523. Dunaliella salina is a special type of microalga. It is a whole food supplement. 10. Shariati M., Hadi M.R. Dunaliella is a unicellular, bi-flagellate, naked green alga (Chlorophyta, Chlorophyceae). Dunaliella salina is a type of one-celled green microalgae which was first discovered in 1838 in Southern France. Schilipaulis L. “The Extensive Commercial Cultivation of Dunaliella.” Bioresource Technology, 1991. Due to its ability to produce red pigmentation, β-carotene, the natural food colouring is highly demanded for cosmetic products.  found that high salt concentration inside cells decrease enzymatic activity. 13. It is a single-celled eukaryotic … They are contained in the chloroplasts in lipid globules. Journal of Phycology 47(6): 1454-1460. 2 It is often referred to as a halophile (literally, “salt-loving”) alga because it grows only in high-salt … Thus, while D. salina live in high salt concentrations, they maintain a relatively low concentration of sodium inside . Glycerol is produced through two metabolic processes: intracellular synthesis through a photosynthetic product and metabolism of starch in the cell . Ben-Amotz A, Avron M. Accumulation of metabolites by halotolerant algae and its industrial potential. Different technologies are used, … Therefore, D. salina has a much less overall impact to colouration and archaeal communities contribute more to the red colouration of hypersaline lakes. What is Dunaliella? Glycerol is used as a means by which to maintain both osmotic balance and enzymatic activity. 1937; 88:236–268. They belong to the category of halophiles. Dunaliella has two flagella of equal length and has a single cup-like chloroplast that often contains a central pyrenoid. Glycerol synthesis from starch is regulated through osmotic changes as shown in Figure 5. , From a first pilot plant for D. salina cultivation for β-carotene production established in the USSR in 1966, the commercial cultivation of D. salina for the production of β-carotene throughout the world is now one of the success stories of halophile biotechnology. Few organisms can survive like D. salina does in such highly saline conditions as salt evaporation ponds. Mokady S, Abramovici A, Cogau U. Volume 3: Chlorophyta. Dunaliella salina is a type of halophile green micro-algae especially found in sea salt fields. In order to maximize β-carotene production, D. salina should be grown in 1.5M to 3.0 M NaCl concentration until a stable cell density is reached then increased to 4.4 – 5.0 M NaCl concentration for maximum carotenoid production . 12. Process development and evaluation for algal glycerol production. D. Salina is a unicellular biflagellate red-coloured alga which synthesises massive amounts of carotenoid pigments, colouring the cells a very bright red. Dunaliella salina is a microalga in the green algae family. Tammam A., Fakhry E. and El-Sheekh M. “Effect of salt stress on antioxidant system and the metabolism of the reactive oxygen species in Dunaliella saline and Dunaliella tertiolecta.” African DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-10-83.  studied the mitochondrial and plastid genome of D. salina. To survive, these organisms have high concentrations of β-carotene to protect against the intense light, and high concentrations of glycerol to provide protection against osmotic press… Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1980. pp. Michel Felix Dunal first discovered "D. … Although technically the production of glycerol from D. salina was shown to be possible, economic feasibility is low and no biotechnological operation exists to exploit the alga for glycerol production.. Zhao, R., Cao, Y., Xu, H., Lv, L., Qiao, D. & Cao, Y. Massjuk, N.P. Gantner Verlag K.-G.. Mixed Carotenoids. Farahat N., Rabhi M., Falleh H., Jouini J., Abdelly C. and Smaoui A. "A hundred years of Dunaliella research: 1905-2005", MicrobeWiki reference on Dunaliella salina, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dunaliella_salina&oldid=985733698, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.